We can define them as a special kind of fear or fear. The word phobia is derived from Greek phobos, by the God of the same name that caused panic in their enemies. Therefore, already in antiquity this term meant fear or terror, and so understood until practically our days, when given a more specific use, separating it from other kinds of fear. Lo_que is special about this type of fear, and it differs from the fear that you ever have all felt, are these four qualities: 1) is a fear of disproportionate to the situation that causes it. (2) Those who suffer it recognizes it as absurd, without reasonable explanation. (3) We do not have any control over. (4) It takes to avoid situations in which it appears. Since it is a form of fear, it is logical that the symptom common to all phobias is anxiety: palpitations, sweating, feeling of emptiness in the stomach, muscle tension, hypertension, tremor, etc except in a type of simple phobia (sangre-inyecciones – wounds) that is It produces a syncope (dizziness, hypotension).
Origin theories to explain why and how phobias occur there are hundreds. This fact simply tells us that we cannot answer this question today. What we can say is that there are factors associated with its appearance and its maintenance. -Appearance: (Lighter on the agoraphobia that other) genetic factors influence cultural and family. Some relatives of the patient often have the same fear; and there are fashions in phobias, as part of our culture, (no longer sees the phobia to tuberculosis, but takes the phobia e.g. AIDS or cancer) – maintenance: this point is important because avoid what triggers the phobia or deal with someone you trust, that we protect and reassure, (e.g. If I fear to go out into the street and only do with a family member or a friend) does not lead to cure phobia if not accompanied by appropriate treatment, but somehow support the fears of the patient, and what you get is at the next opportunity to repeat this behavior because it has succeeded in reducing the degree of anxiety he suffered.